Pinguicula is a genus of tiny plants that can go unrecognized until they bloom. They are commonly known as Butterwort. The leaves are a soft greenish-yellow, which probably led to the name. It could also be from the slightly greasy or "buttery" feel of the leaves. In spring, the plants form low rosettes and bloom with yellow, pink, purple, or white flowers.
Site conditions must be considered when learning how to grow Butterworts. They like alkaline soil where nutrients are poor, and the site is warm and moist to boggy. The plant's leaves have a coating of insect-trapping resin. The prey of choice for these tiny plants is gnats, which give up valuable nitrogen for the plant to use.
Butterworts from cold winter climates hibernate as small buds. Species from Mexico turn into non-carnivorous succulent plants during the subtropical winter dry season.
You can grow Butterwort plants outside in temperate to warm zones or in a pot as annuals. In USDA zones 10 and 11, the plants will persist as perennials and grow new rosettes, multiplying the plant's diminutive size. The best soil for container plants is a mix of sphagnum moss with equal parts vermiculite or sand. Plants situated outdoors will do best in moist soil or even near water.
Butterworts thrive in the sun to partial shade. The plants must never dry out, though potted plants should also have good drainage. They must experience a dormancy period to regrow and bloom each spring. Cut back the dead leaves in late winter or early spring to encourage new growth.
Butterworts are fairly self-sufficient. They should not be grown indoors unless you have a gnat problem, but they can gather their own food outside. The plants attract tiny insects, which get stuck in the slimy, slick coating on the leaves. Their struggle encourages the release of a digestive enzyme. The little Butterwort will thrive in the correct light, temperature, and moist conditions. These plants are not bothered by many diseases or pests. The most important consideration for Butterwort care is the quality and frequency of water. The plant cannot dry out, or it may die. The type of water is crucial, however, as the plant is sensitive to certain minerals and concentrations of salt. Use rainwater if possible. Otherwise, purchase distilled water.
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